The following is the detailed research of our Trident Gum Proof Process.

Trident White GumSorbitol, Gum Base, Maltitol, Mannitol, Artificial and Natural Flavoring; Less Than 2% of: Acacia, Acesulfame Potassium, Aspartame, BHT (To Maintain Freshness), Calcium Casein Peptone-Calcium Phosphate (Lactose-Free Milk Derivative), Candelilla Wax, Sodium Stearate and Titanium Dioxide (Color).

Sorbitol: no health or environmental concern. [1]

Gum Base: a non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system. It is produced through a blend of raw materials which can be categorized in five classes: Elastomers: act as the key ingredient and provide elasticity. Resins: act as binders and softeners. Plasticizers: render the elastomer soft to ensure thorough blending of the gum base. Fillers: contribute to the overall texture. Antioxidants: prevent oxidation of the gum base and flavors during shelf life.[2]

Because Gum Base is a trade secret the exact process and ingredients are unknown. Wuxi Yueda Gum Base Manufacture Co, Ltd, a gum base manufacturer, stated their gum base is made of several food grade raw materials- rubber, ester gum, paraffine wax, polyvinyl acetates, talc powder, calcium carbonate.[3]

-Talc can cause pulminary issues,[4] and is linked with lung[5][6] and ovarian cancer.[7Talc is labeled as a Group 2B Carcinogen- “Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).[8]

-Polyvinyl Acetate is manufactured using vinyl acetate.[9] The IARC found evidence that vinyl acetate causes tumors in rats[10] and the IARC believes that trace amounts of vinyl acetate can make it into the gum base material.[11]

-Paraffin Wax is classified as “expected to be harmful to humans” because consuming paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation.[12]

-Ester Gum (glycerol ester of wood rosin) is prepared from wood rosin that is harvested from the stumps of the longleaf pine.[13] Ester Gum is not harmful to humans or the environment.[14]

-Calcium Carbonate: no health or environmental concern.[15]

-SB Rubber may cause skin irritation and shouldn’t be inhaled or ingested. Excessive inhalation can cause headache, nausea, irritation.[16]

Maltitol: no health or enviornmental concern.[17]

Mannitol: no health or enviornmental concern.[18]

Artificial and Natural Flavoring: is a trade secret so there is no way of knowing what is in it.[19]

Acacia: no health or environmental concern.[20]

Acesulfame Potassium: no health or environmental concern.[21]

Aspartame: no health or environmental concern.[22]

BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene): is a chemical derivative of phenol.[23Phenol is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract and can cause dermatitis, and second and third degree burns with excessive contact. Phenol can also damage the central nervous system and heart- resulting in dysrhythmia, seizures, and comas.[24][25]

Calcium Casein Peptone-Calcium Phosphate: is a lactose free milk derivative- no health concerns.[26]

Candelilla Wax: Crude candelilla wax is obtained by first boiling the dried stalks of the candelilla plant (Euphorbia antisyphilitica) in water acidified with sulfuric acid to release the wax. The molten wax is then skimmed off and allowed to solidify and refined by further treatment with sulfuric acid and subsequent passage through filter-presses. It is composed of about 20-29% wax esters, 12-14% alcohols and sterols, 49-50% hydrocarbons, 7-9% free acids, 2-3% moisture and 1% mineral matter.[27][28]

It is unknown whether trace amounts of sulfuric acid remain in candelilla wax. Sulfuric acid causes irritation to the eyes, skin, nose, throat; pulmonary edema, bronchitis; emphysema; conjunctivitis; stomatitis; dental erosion; eye and skin burns; dermatitis; tooth erosion; and respiratory tract irritation. The substance is very corrosive to the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract and attacks the enamel of the teeth. Inhalation may result in a burning sensation, sore throat, cough, labored breathing, shortness of breath and lung edema. Skin contact may result in redness, pain, blisters, serious skin burns. Eye contact may result in redness, pain and severe deep burns. Sulfuric acid is corrosive on ingestion and may result in abdominal pain, burning sensation, shock or collapse. Drinking sulfuric acid can burn your mouth, throat, and stomach; and can result in death.[29][30Sulfuric Acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, other acids, and glue; in the purification of petroleum; in the pickling of metal; and in lead-acid batteries.[31Sulfuric Acid is labeled as a Group 1- “Carcinogenic to Humans” by the IARC.[32]

Sodium Stearate: has no human health concern and there is a lack of research related to possible environmental concern.[33]

Titanium Dioxide: is a naturally occurring oxide of titanium. There is evidence that Yellow nail syndrome may be caused by titanium- either implanted for medical reasons or by eating foods that contain titanium dioxide.[34Titanium Dioxide is labeled as a Group 2B- “Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans” by the IARC.[35] A study found that when rats drank water treated with titanium dioxide the nanoparticles caused clastogenicity, genotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and inflammation.[36][37]

Inhalation of titanium dioxide can cause irritation to the nose and throat. Skin contact can cause mild irritation, and eye contact may cause slight irritation as a “foreign object”. Tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.[38]

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